Proven Strategies to Increase Student Achievement
Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
By Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock
The following items have been proven by research to increase student learning and achievement. The items are ranked according from the most affective strategies to those which show less improvement. Even the items on the bottom of the list are worth considering since they do help achievement.
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences: This category includes compare/contrast, creating analogies, classifying, and creating metaphors. Venn diagrams and graphic organizers are useful tools.
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: Rewarding, when done incorrectly, may have a negative impact on learning. Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance. Tell the student exactly what they did a “good job” on. Rewarding with tangible objects, like candy, can cause negative result, unless the desired objective has been met and the student knows what they were working toward. One good method of rewarding and recognition is Pause, Prompt, and Praise. Ask the question, pause to let the student think, prompt them if the answer is incorrect and then offer praise when they reach the desired answer.
4. Homework and Practice: Please be sure that the homework is appropriate practice that the student already understands to a certain degree. Asking a student to practice a skill they have not at least partially mastered only creates frustration. The student may then just give up.
5. Nonlinguistic Representations: Research shows that pictures and drawings help students understand and remember concepts. Examples are graphic organizers, time sequences, mental pictures, and drawings.
Please check tomorrow’s post for more info.